Skip to main content

How healthy are Mt. Tam's natural resources?




Bird Species
Mammal Species
Fish Species
Amphibian & Reptile Species
Birds Northern Spotted Owl | NPS Photo


Birds are recognized as indicators of ecological change.

Mammals River Otter | Photo by Mark Van Bergh


Knowledge about the mountain’s mammalian residents varies, but is generally limited.

Fish Coho Salmon | Photo by Casey del Real


Anadromous fish are an important food source for many species.

Reptiles & Amphibians Foothill Yellow-legged Frog | Photo by Ian Austin

Reptiles & Amphibians

Amphibians and some reptiles are similarly responsive to aquatic habitat conditions.

Mt. Tam is home to many native animal species, including at least 35 mammals, 184 birds, 11 fish, and 25 amphibians and reptiles. Wildlife are found in every habitat type on the mountain, where they may be grazers, predators, prey—or play some combination of these key ecosystem roles. Changes in their abundance or distribution across the landscape can indicate the effects ecological stressors like climate change, invasive species, and human disturbance.

How Were Wildlife Indicators Chosen?

The wildlife indicators included here were chosen, in part, based on how much information we have on them. The amount of data available on Mt. Tam’s wildlife varies widely depending on whether they have ever been inventoried or if they are regularly monitored. Some species, like the threatened Northern Spotted Owl (Strix occidentalis caurina), have been monitored for years, whereas mammal monitoring is just now underway. Other groups, like invertebrates, have never been systematically inventoried or monitored on the mountain. You can learn more about some of these important data gaps here.

The species that were selected as indicators were also chosen if their condition and/or trend might reveal something about other aspects of ecosystem health. For example, American badgers (Taxidea taxus) are good indicators of grassland ecosystem extent and quality, and North American river otters (Lontra canadensis) can reveal a number of things about both riparian and terrestrial habitats.

The links in the photos above will take you through the different wildlife indicators used in this health assessment from their broadest categories down to the individual species level.

Additional information about this health assessment process, including how indicators were chosen, is available in the What We Did section of this site.

Learn More

The links below provide additional information about Mt. Tam's wildlife.